How Great the Need?
1. Seth Farber, “The Real Abuse,” National Review, (April 12, 1993).
2. Darlene Gavron Stevens, “Park Forest Child Welfare Agency Blames Troubles on Inexperience,” Chicago Tribune, (January 10, 1995); Wes Smith, “Unwanted Children Find a Haven at an Old Air Base,” Chicago Tribune, (February 16, 1996).
3. Testimony of Denise Kane, Inspector General, Illinois Department of Children and Family Services, State of Child Welfare Services, Hearing, Subcommittee on Human Resources of the Committee on Ways and Means, U.S. House of Representatives, June 21, 1993.
4. Penny Johnson, Carol Yoken, and Ron Voss, “Foster Care Placement: The Child’s Perspective,” Chapin Hall Center for Children University of Chicago Study, (Chicago: 1990)
5. 1996-1997 Los Angeles County Grand Jury, Juvenile Services Committee, Final Report, Early Release #3, March 1997.
6. Testimony of Peter Digre, President Clinton’s Budget Proposal For New Funding for Child Welfare Services Targeted for Family Support and Preservation Services, hearing, Subcommittee on Human Resources, Committee on Ways and Means, U.S. House of Representatives, April 21, 1993. pp. 87 – 88.
7. Drawn from the following articles in the Sacramento Bee: Pamela Martineau, “Unsafe Storage of Guns Targeted: County May Make it Factor in Seizure of Children,” (November 6, 1997); Nancy Weaver Teichert, “State: CPS Left Kids in Danger: Lag in Abuse Probes Criticized,” (October 19, 1997); Kimberly A. Moy, “Panelists Demand Reforms at CPS: Citizen Advisory Group Spurred by Tot’s Death,” (October 1, 1997); Pamela Martineau, “Big Boost Sought in CPS Staff: Official: Social Workers Needed as Child Protection Cases Soar,” (September 20, 1997); Pamela Martineau, “23 More At-risk Children Rescued: 6 Adults Arrested in 2nd Raid this Year,” (July 24, 1997).
8. Leroy H. Pelton, “Resolving the Crisis in Child Welfare,” Public Welfare, (Fall 1990).
9. Douglas J. Besharov, “Right versus Rights: The Dilemma of Child Protection,” Public Welfare, (Spring 1985).
11. William Meezan in Brenda G. McGowan and William Meezan, ed., Child Welfare: Current Dilemmas, Future Directions, (3rd. ed.; Illinois: F. E. Peacock, 1983). p. 18.
12. Deborah Sharp, “In Florida, A Challenge to Foster Care,” USA Today, (February 14, 1995).
13. Los Angeles County Grand Jury, see note 5.
14. Testimony of Diane Weinroth, Children in State Care: Ensuring Their Protection and Support, hearing, Committee on Children, Youth and Families of the Committee on Ways and Means, U.S. House of Representatives, September 25, 1986.
15. Duncan Lindsey, The Welfare of Children, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994) pp. 48 – 54.
16. That children are removed for reasons more related to poverty than other outside factors is the primary thesis advanced in: Leroy Pelton, For Reasons of Poverty: A Critical Analysis Of The Public Child Welfare System In The United States, (New York: Praeger, 1989). See also generally the testimony of Richard Wexler, Balancing Diverging Interests, hearing, Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources Subcommittee on Children and Families Hearing on Child Protection, May 25, 1995, in which the “pernicious confusion of poverty with neglect” is discussed.
17. Seth Farber, “The Real Abuse,” see note 1. The name of the New York City agency has since been changed to the Administration for Children’s Services.
18. Mitchell H. Katz, Robert L. Hampton, Eli H. Newberger, Roy T. Bowles, and Jane C. Snyder, “Returning Children Home: Clinical Decision Making in Cases of child Abuse and Neglect,” American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 56, 253-263.
19. Robert L. Hampton and Eli H. Newberger, “Child Abuse Incidence and Reporting by Hospitals: Significance of Severity, Class, and Race,” American Journal of Public Health, 75, 56-60.
20. Richard Wexler, Wounded Innocents: The Real Victims of the War Against Child Abuse, (Buffalo, New York: Prometheus Books, 1995) p. 211.
21. Governor’s Commission on Children, Final Report, January 1989, p. 75.
22. R. Bruce Dold, “Kids Suffer Under DCFS Reform Efforts,” Chicago Tribune, (September 22, 1995).
23. Sally Kestin, “Sibling Separation Traumatic for Kids,” Tampa Tribune, (November 23, 1997).
25. Testimony of Jane Knitzer, Children’s Defense Fund, Amendments to Social Services, Foster Care, and Child Welfare Programs, hearing, Subcommittee on Public Assistance and Unemployment Compensation of the Committee on Ways and Means, U.S. House of Representatives, March 22 and 27, 1979.
26. Thomas D. Morton and Marsha K. Salus, Supervising Child Protective Services Caseworkers, User Manual Series, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families (1994).
27. Nationally, at least 45 percent of reported child abuse and neglect related fatalities have come to the attention of CPS agencies prior to their deaths. See David Wiese, Deborah Daro, Current Trends in Child Abuse Reporting and Fatalities: The Results of the 1994 Annual Fifty State Survey, (Chicago: The National Committee to Prevent Child Abuse, 1995).
28. Diana English and Peter Pecora, “Risk Assessment as a Practice Method in Child Protective Services,” Child Welfare, (Sept – Oct 1994). p. 452.
29. See: Thomas McDonald and Jill Marks, “A Review of Risk Factors Assessed in Child Protective Services,” Social Service Review, (March 1991); Howard Doueck, Diana English, Diane DePanfilis and Gerald Moote, “Decision-Making in Child Protective Services: A Comparison of Selected Risk-Assessment Systems,” Child Welfare, (Sept – Oct 1993).
30. Michael Wald and Maria Woolverton, “Risk Assessment: The Emperor’s New Clothes?” Child Welfare, (Nov – Dec 1990).
31. Authors’ review of risk assessment instruments. Examples are drawn from risk assessment instruments known to have been in use in the states of Texas, Pennsylvania, California and Ohio during the period of 1995 through 1998.
32. John M. Hagedorn, Forsaking Our Children: Bureaucracy and Reform in the Child Welfare System, (Chicago: Lake View Press, 1995) p. 147.
33. Little Hoover Commission, Report #115, For The Sake Of The Children: Restructuring Foster Care In California, April 9, 1992.
34. Paul Dilorenzo, “Breaking Up Families Isn’t Best Solution,” Philadelphia Daily News, (June 26, 1992).
35. Larry Brown, “Seeking a National Consensus: Without a National Commitment to Standards, CPS Will Continue to Flounder,” Public Welfare, (Winter 1987). p. 14. See also generally the series on Child Abuse Reporting.
36. Testimony of Dennis Lepak, Foster Care, Child Welfare, and Adoption Reforms, Joint Hearings before the Subcommittee on Public Assistance and Unemployment Compensation of the Committee on Ways and Means and the Select Committee on Children, Youth and Families, U.S. House of Representatives, April 13 and 28, May 12, 1988. See also the article Decision Making in Child Welfare for more illustrations as to how and where such decisions are sometimes made.
37. Testimony of Marcia Robinson Lowry and Boyd A., Foster Care, Child Welfare, and Adoption Reforms, Joint Hearings before the Subcommittee on Public Assistance and Unemployment Compensation of the Committee on Ways and Means and the Select Committee on Children, Youth and Families, U.S. House of Representatives, April 13 and 28, May 12, 1988. See also the series on Reasonable Efforts for a more comprehensive analysis.
39. Prepared statement of the Child Welfare League of America to the Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources, hearing on Reasonable Efforts, as appeared in the article posting “CWLA on Reasonable Efforts,” on the CASANet Internet Home Page, web downloaded 1996. Copy on file.
40. Dana Mack, The Assault on Parenthood: How Our Culture Undermines the Family, (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1997) p. 59.
41. Douglas J. Besharov, “Right versus Rights,” see note 9. See also generally the testimony of Douglas J. Besharov, Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families, U.S. House of Representatives, March 3, 1987.
42. Lois M. Collins, “Foster Care: Children’s Lives In A State Of Crisis,” Deseret News, (April 24, 1994).
43. 1992-93 Santa Clara County Grand Jury, Final Report, Investigation: Department Of Family And Children’s Services 1993.
44. Lynn Smith, “Children’s Aid System Gets Mixed Marks From Clients,” Los Angeles Times, (February 27, 1996).
45. LaShawn A. ex rel. Moore v. Kelly, 990 F.2d 1319 (D.C.Cir.1993) cert. denied, 510 U.S. 1044, (1994). See also Lashawn A. v. Marion S. Barry, Jr., 87 F.3d 1389 (D.C. Cir. 1996) (Noting that “more than a thousand admissions of fact by the District, showed that District officials had consistently failed to carry out responsibilities imposed on them by federal and local laws”).
46. Susan Kuczka, “Judge Scolds DCFS Officials,” Chicago Tribune (June 21, 1994).
48. Leroy Pelton, For Reasons of Poverty: A Critical Analysis Of The Public Child Welfare System In The United States, p. 67. See note 15.
49. Benjamin S. Wolf, “Some Families Needlessly Shattered,” Chicago Tribune, (July 10, 1991) (Letter to the editor by Benjamin S. Wolf, Director of the Children’s and Institutionalized Persons Project, ACLU of Illinois).